Preparedness and response for Points of Entry and transport operators. Published guidance and reports for COVID-19.





Interim advice for preparedness and response to cases of COVID-19 at points of entry in the European Union (EU)/EEA Member States (MS)

The interim advice documents listed below were prepared after a request from the European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE). An ad-hoc working group was established with members from the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action consortium.

The scope of the advice provided in the documents listed below is to assist public health authorities in developing their short-term and long-term national and local preparedness plans. It further contains useful advice for the air, maritime and ground transport sectors.








- Buses and bus stations

and general advice at points of entry for public health measures and screening: 


- Trains and rail stations

and general advice at points of entry for public health measures and screening: 


Communications from the Commission about COVID-19 and transport


Training resources for COVID-19

Online training resources for COVID-19


  • Training courses
  • Training of the trainers’ course “Preparedness and response to public health events at airports” (EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS 2019);
  • Training of the trainers’ course “Preparedness and response to public health events at ports” (EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS 2019);
  • Evidence-based best practices on entry/exit screening for infectious diseases in humans (DG SANTE 2019).

The training materials of the training course are available to the EU MS and access can be given by the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action (contact email:

  • Pre-recorded webinars:

All past webinars are listed here

To access the available for play-back viewing webinars please apply on the link below by completing the webinar(s) you are interested in: 






Q & A


Τhe following questions were made by participants during the webinars conducted by the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Answers are based on guidelines from ECDC and WHO considering the current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 as of 5 March 2020. Answers were updated to include latest available guidance from ECDC and WHO as of 01 April 2020. For any further information or comment please contact

Environmental persistence of SARS-CoV-2

The survival time of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment has been evaluated in recent publications reporting experimental studies that estimated the environmental stability of SARS-CoV-2 as up to three hours in the air post-aerosolisation, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel, albeit with significantly decreased titres [1]. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified on a variety of surfaces in cabins of both symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 infected passengers, up to 17 days after cabins were vacated on the Diamond Princess, but prior to conducting disinfection procedures [2]. SARS-CoV-2 has been isolated from respiratory specimens, stool, urine and gastrointestinal mucosa [3-5]. SARS-CoV-2 has also been detected by PCR in rooms where COVID-19 patients were hospitalised, specifically from surfaces of the toilet bowl and sink, and the air exhaust outlets [6]. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 was also detected on different objects such as self-service printers used by patients to print the results of their own exams, desktop keyboards, doorknobs and on gloves [7]. In an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, airborne transmission was not reported [6]. There have been no reports of faecal−oral transmission of the COVID-19 virus to date [8].

Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non-healthcare facilities exposed to SARS-CoV-2 can be found at:  [9].

Guidance on disinfection of environments in healthcare and non-healthcare settings potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 can be found at: [7].

Technical recommendations for cleaning and disinfection on ships

The EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS has developed suggested procedures for cleaning and disinfection of ships during the pandemic or when a case of COVID-19 has been identified on board and are available here:


Technical recommendations for cleaning and disinfection on aircrafts

Following an event of an Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI) case on board, the airline should ensure that cleaning and disinfection procedures are followed consistently and correctly using the licenced products suitable for the aircraft at the highest acceptable concentrations [22, 23]. Special attention should be given to the zone of risk in the cabin area (e.g. seats, headrests, table-tops, handsets, and other materials coming in contact with the suspect case) where the case was seated, as well as all shared facilities and high-touched surfaces[11, 23, 24]. According to EASA guidance, after disembarkation of passenger and crew, the cabin doors should be closed and the air conditioning adjusted to the maximum volume to ensure all air exchange is completed[23]. The service staff who will clean and disinfect the aircraft should be specially trained and apply the standard procedures for cleaning and disinfecting contaminated surfaces with infectious agents using the appropriate PPE.

WHO advises the following procedures for cleaning and disinfection in case a public health event has occurred on board [25]:

  • Ensure any disinfection is conducted using products licensed for use in the country occupied. The disinfectants must be tested by a certified laboratory according to the specifications of the aircraft manufacturers for material compatibility tests.
  • Any contaminated items must be handled appropriately to mitigate the risk of transmission:
    • Disposable items (hand towels, gloves, tissues) should be double bagged and sent to incineration or similar final disposal, according to the States Parties guidelines for infectious waste management.
    • Reusable items that can be washed and treated/disinfected (gowns or linens) must be tagged and sent to a facility for washing and treatment, as recommended according to infection control procedures, depending on the type of contamination/infectious agent, if known.

Based on recommended disinfectants for aircrafts during the previous 2003 SARS outbreak and for MERS CoV, the recommended disinfectants are products containing ethanol in concentration of 70% or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, provided that these products have been tested by a certified laboratory according to the specifications of the aircraft manufacturers for material compatibility tests. For other products, the label of the manufacturer should mention that the disinfectant is effective against emerging viruses or against coronaviruses or that have sporicidal effect.  

Detailed guidance for Aircraft preventive disinfection and for aircraft disinfection after an event can be found at the EASA Interim guidance on Aircraft Cleaning and Disinfection in relation to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics at:


1. To make the chlorine solution with a concentration of 1000ppm, 4 teaspoons or 20 ml of household bleach (5%) should be diluted in 1 liter of water.

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cleaning and Disinfection for Households - Interim Recommendations for U.S. Households with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available from:

15.  European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT. Infection prevention and control in the household management of people with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease(COVID-19). 2020, ECDC: Stockholm




Affected areas are defined by WHO in the website

In the latest travel advice published by WHO on 29 February 2020, the following are defined as affected areas:

“Affected areas” are considered those countries, provinces, territories or cities experiencing ongoing transmission of COVID-19, in contrast to areas reporting only imported cases. As of 27 February 2020, although China, particularly the Province of Hubei, has experienced sustained local transmission and has reported by far the largest number of confirmed cases since the beginning of the outbreak, lately the situation in China showed a significant decrease in cases. At the same time, an increasing number of countries, other than China, have reported cases, including through local transmission of COVID-19. As the epidemic evolves, it will be expected that many areas may detect imported cases and local transmission of COVID-19. WHO is publishing daily situation reports on the evolution of the outbreak (available at: The outbreaks reported so far have occurred primarily within clusters of cases exposed through close-contacts, within families or special gathering events. COVID-19 is primarily transmitted through droplets from, and close contact with, infected individuals. Control measures that focus on prevention, particularly through regular hand washing and cough hygiene, and on active surveillance for the early detection and isolation of cases, the rapid identification and close monitoring of persons in contact with cases, and the rapid access to clinical care, particularly for severe cases, are effective to contain most outbreaks of COVID-19 [15].

Relevant guidance is provided in the advice documents published by EU Healthy Gateways Joint Action: ‘Interim advice for preparedness and response to cases of COVID-19 at points of entry in the European Union (EU)/EEA Member States’ [27]. Proper use and disposal of masks and proper hand hygiene need to be ensured by training users before distributing masks.

The type of PPE to be used by the staff at the PoE and on board conveyances can be found at:

Advice from WHO in regard to PPE at PoE can be found at:



Specimen collection and laboratory testing will be conducted at the health care facility where the suspect case has been transferred.

Available training materials from EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS:

  • Training of the trainers’ course “Preparedness and response to public health events at airports” (EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS 2019);
  • Training of the trainers’ course “Preparedness and response to public health events at ports” (EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS 2019);
  • Evidence-based best practices on entry/exit screening for infectious diseases in humans (DG SANTE 2019).

EU Member States have access; further access can be given by the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action (contact email:


Additional materials for COVID-19 are available in the WHO website and the ECDC website:


Ferry boats are advised to implement the guidance provided by EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS and WHO about ship operators and passenger ships. The guidance documents can be found at:



Although currently there is no evidence of airborne transmission, a precautionary approach is recommended due to uncertainties surrounding the potential for aerosol-mediated transmission of the virus. Transmission through inhalation of aerosols during aerosol-generating procedures, may have occurred in some cases [17] [7].

Whenever possible, ships isolation rooms with mechanical ventilation should have negative pressure with minimum of 12 air changes per hour, while isolation rooms with natural ventilation, should provide a ventilation rate of at least 160 litres/second [18]. All air handling units on board the ship should be adjusted to supply 100% outside air and no air recirculation should take place.

This will depend on the policy of each country and authority. Exchange of questions, opinion, and experiences could be done between points of entry or through the central level. 

This will be judged by the physician and occupational health specialist for the specific persons and workplace. 

Scenario 1: A suspect case is detected on board while a ship is in port and as many travellers are on tours, others walking in the city and others are on board.


Since according to the scenario the symptomatic person is currently on board, the procedures for managing the symptomatic suspect traveller will start immediately on board. The procedures for identifying the close contacts will start immediately with the persons who are currently on board. The procedures for identifying the close contacts who are currently ashore will start once they are back to the ship. If it is feasible, their return back could be arranged earlier than scheduled.  All other steps will be followed according to the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice for ship operators:


Scenario 2: A suspect case is detected in one of the buses that are transferring passengers to the organized tours (there could be other buses doing the same stops and visiting the same places at the same time of the bus where a suspect case was detected).


The suspect case on board the bus should be transferred with an ambulance to the hospital immediately, if this is feasible. Further advice about management of a suspect case on the bus can be found in the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice for bus operators:

The identification and management of close contacts on board the ship will take place according to the procedures described in the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice for ship operators:


Scenario 3: One of the drivers or guides becomes a suspect case and has performed tours for cruise lines in the past 14 days or is at that moment working with cruise line passengers.


The advice for bus operators should be followed in regard to the suspect driver or guide while on the bus. All persons who had been in close contact with the suspect driver or guide the previous 14 days should be informed about their exposure. Close contacts who are still on board should be managed according to the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice. All other persons who participated in previous cruises and have disembarked should be managed according to the ECDC advice for management of close contacts:

The items 3.4.6 to 3.4.9 of European Manual for Hygiene Standards and Communicable Disease Surveillance on Passenger Ships are relevant to receiving food provisions on board cruise ships. In addition, items 3.4.10 through 3.4.21 relate to storage of food.  The European Manual for Hygiene Standards and Communicable Disease Surveillance on Passenger Ships is available here: 

There is no special requirement for receiving food due to potential contamination with COVID-19. WHO advises that “It is highly unlikely that people can contract COVID-19 from food or food packaging”. When receiving food, the ship should follow the standard hygiene practises as defined on the HACCP Plan of the ship, as well as follow some general infection control practices. These include reporting of symptoms, frequent hand washing with warm water and soap (the use of gloves does not replace the need for frequent handwashing), physical distancing (by maintain more than 1 meter distance from other crew members, good respiratory hygiene (cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing; dispose of tissues and wash hands), frequent cleaning and disinfection of work surfaces and frequently touched surfaces such as door handles. Food workers should avoid touching their nose, mouth and eyes when wearing gloves and without washing their hands first. Moreover, while working with food, hands should be washed after touching nose, mouth and eyes.

Additional information regarding food safety and COVID-19 is available in the WHO Interim Guidance on COVID-19 and Food Safety: Guidance for Food Businesses: interim guidance available here:  




1.            van Doremalen, N., et al., Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med, 2020.

2.            Moriarty, L.F., et al., Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships - Worldwide, February-March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(12): p. 347-352.

3.            Ling, Y., et al., Persistence and clearance of viral RNA in 2019 novel coronavirus disease rehabilitation patients. Chin Med J (Engl), 2020.

4.            Ren, L.L., et al., Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin Med J (Engl), 2020.

5.            Holshue, M.L., et al., First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med, 2020. 382(10): p. 929-936.

6.            Ong, S.W.X., et al., Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. JAMA, 2020.

7.            European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT. Disinfection of environments in healthcare and nonhealthcare settings potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. 2020, ECDC: Stockholm

8.            World Health Organization. Scientific brief - Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations. 29 March 2020 [cited 30/03/20; Available from:

9.            European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT - Guidelines for the use of non-pharmaceutical measures to delay and mitigate the impact of 2019-nCoV February 2020 2020: Stockholm.

10.          Klaus, J., et al., Disinfection of aircraft : Appropriate disinfectants and standard operating procedures for highly infectious diseases. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, 2016. 59(12): p. 1544-1548.

11.          European Aviation Safety Agency. Interim guidance on Aircraft Cleaning and Disinfectionin relation to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. Issue: 01 –Date: 20/03/2020. 2020 20/03/2020 [cited 27/03/2020; Available from:

12.          World Health Organization, Interim Guidance - Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in suspected human cases. 2020.

13.          World Health Organization. Summary of SARS and air travel. 2003 23 May 2003 21/1/2020]; Available from:

14.          World Health Organization, Handbook for the Management of Public Health Events in Air Transport. Updated with information on Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. 2015: World Health Organization.

15.          World Health Organization. International travel and health Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in relation to COVID-19 outbreak 29 February 2020. 2020; Available from:


17.          Rothe, C., et al., Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. The New England journal of medicine, 2020: p. 10.1056/NEJMc2001468.

18.          World Health Organization. Interim guidance - Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 is suspected. 2020 13 March 2020; Available from:



Disclaimer: This document arises from the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS Joint Action that was funded by the European Union’s Health Programme (2014-2020).The content of this document represents the views of the authors only and is their sole responsibility; it cannot be considered to reflect the views of the European Commission and/or the Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency (CHAFEA) or any other body of the European Union. The European Commission and the Agency do not accept any responsibility for use that may be made of the information it contains.


Guidance for COVID-19 from other sources


Points of Entry

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control




World Health Organisation


Transport and travellers

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control



  • Travel during the COVID-19 Pandemic


US travel association


US department of state


World Health Organisation


European Maritime Safety Agency








US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


World Health Organisation





European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control



Coronavirus ‘SARS-CoV-2’ Infections – Operational Recommendations.










US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


World Health Organisation


Ground transport

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control




World Health Organisation


Mass gatherings

World Health Organisation



European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control


World Health Organisation


Contact tracing

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

  • ECDC Mobile applications in support of contact tracing for COVID-19 - A guidance for EU EEA Member States

  • ECDC Contact tracing for COVID-19: current evidence, options for scale-up and an assessment of resources needed

  • ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT  - Contact tracing: Public health management of persons, including healthcare workers, having had contact with COVID-19 cases in the European Union


World Health Organisation


Infection prevention and control – WASH - Non-pharmaceutical measures

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control


World Health Organisation


Risk communication

World Health Organisation


Latest on COVID-19

Epidemiology and clinical characteristics


Modes of transmission


Laboratory testing




Peer-reviewed scientific articles on COVID-19 and transportation [1-266]

1.            Moreno, T., et al., Tracing surface and airborne SARS-CoV-2 RNA inside public buses and subway trains. Environ Int, 2020. 147: p. 106326.

2.            Chen, L.H. and R. Steffen, SARS-CoV-2 Testing to Assure Safety in Air Travel. J Travel Med, 2021.

3.            Kiang, M.V., et al., Routine asymptomatic testing strategies for airline travel during the COVID-19 pandemic: a simulation analysis. medRxiv, 2020.

4.            Russell, T.W., et al., Effect of internationally imported cases on internal spread of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Public Health, 2021. 6(1): p. e12-e20.

5.            Picchiotti, N., et al., COVID-19 pandemic: a mobility-dependent SEIR model with undetected cases in Italy, Europe, and US. Epidemiol Prev, 2020. 44(5-6 Suppl 2): p. 136-143.

6.            Li, Y., et al., The effect of travel restrictions of Wuhan city against the COVID-19: A modified SEIR model analysis. Disaster Med Public Health Prep, 2021: p. 1-29.

7.            Wen, J. and Z. Su, Public health lessons from crisis-related travel: The COVID-19 pandemic. J Infect Public Health, 2020. 14(1): p. 158-159.

8.            Marei, R.M., et al., Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Early Travel-Associated COVID-19 Cases. Front Public Health, 2020. 8: p. 573925.

9.            Tiwari, A., et al., Pandemic risk of COVID-19 outbreak in the United States: An analysis of network connectedness with air travel data. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 103: p. 97-101.

10.         Cuschieri, S., et al., Dealing with COVID-19 in small European island states: Cyprus, Iceland and Malta. Early Hum Dev, 2020: p. 105261.

11.         Grobusch, M.P., F. Schaumburg, and A. de Frey, Air travel and COVID-19 prevention: Fasten your seat belts, turbulence ahead. Travel Med Infect Dis, 2020. 38: p. 101927.

12.         Wilson, D., et al., The effectiveness of a 17-week lifestyle intervention on health behaviors among airline pilots during COVID-19. J Sport Health Sci, 2020.

13.         Pereira, D.D.S. and J. Soares de Mello, Efficiency evaluation of Brazilian airlines operations considering the Covid-19 outbreak. J Air Transp Manag, 2021. 91: p. 101976.

14.         Sekizuka, T., et al., COVID-19 Genome Surveillance at International Airport Quarantine Stations in Japan. J Travel Med, 2020.

15.         David, P. and Y. Shoenfeld, The Smell in COVID-19 Infection: Diagnostic Opportunities. Isr Med Assoc J, 2020. 22(7): p. 401-403.

16.         Migisha, R., et al., Early cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda: epidemiology and lessons learned from risk-based testing approaches - March-April 2020. Global Health, 2020. 16(1): p. 114.

17.         Schwabe, D., et al., Long-Distance Aeromedical Transport of Patients with COVID-19 in Fixed-Wing Air Ambulance Using a Portable Isolation Unit: Opportunities, Limitations and Mitigation Strategies. Open Access Emerg Med, 2020. 12: p. 411-419.

18.         Pan, J., et al., Risk assessment and evaluation of China's policy to prevent COVID-19 cases imported by plane. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020. 14(12): p. e0008908.

19.         Malagón-Rojas, J., B.E. Parra, and M. Mercado, Infection and Risk Perception of SARS-CoV-2 among Airport Workers: A Mixed Methods Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020. 17(23).

20.         Bielecki, M., et al., Reprint of: Air travel and COVID-19 prevention in the pandemic and peri-pandemic period: A narrative review. Travel Med Infect Dis, 2020. 38: p. 101939.

21.         Gaskin, D.J., H. Zare, and B. Delarmente, Geographic Disparities in COVID-19 Infections and Deaths: The Role of Transportation. Transp Policy (Oxf), 2020.

22.         Xiao, R., et al., How does China keep COVID-19 outside its boarder? First-hand experience of medical staff at an international airport in China. J Travel Med, 2020.

23.         Sotomayor-Castillo, C., et al., Air travel in a COVID-19 world: Commercial airline passengers' health concerns and attitudes towards infection prevention and disease control measures. Infect Dis Health, 2020.

24.         Shaimoldina, A. and Y.Q. Xie, Challenges of SARS-CoV-2 prevention in flights, suggested solutions with potential on-site diagnosis resembling cancer biomarkers and urgency of travel medicine. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2020. 24(23): p. 12589-12592.

25.         Pandey, N., et al., An Ophthalmological update for air-travellers during COVID-19. Travel Med Infect Dis, 2020. 39: p. 101955.

26.         Hayakawa, K., et al., SARS-CoV-2 infection among returnees on charter flights to Japan from Hubei, China: a report from National Center for Global Health and Medicine. Glob Health Med, 2020. 2(2): p. 107-111.

27.         Horoho, S., et al., Questioning COVID-19 Surface Stability and Fomite Spreading in Three Aeromedical Cases: A Case Series. Mil Med, 2020.

28.         Kakoullis, L., et al., Response to COVID-19 in Cyprus: Policy changes and epidemic trends. Int J Clin Pract, 2020: p. e13944.

29.         Hawkes, C.H., Smell, Taste and Covid-19: Testing is Essential. QJM, 2020.

30.         Koh, C.H., Commercial Air Travel for Passengers With Cardiovascular Disease: Recommendations for Common Conditions. Curr Probl Cardiol, 2020. 46(3): p. 100768.

31.         Dagens, A.B., et al., Trans-Atlantic aeromedical repatriation of multiple COVID-19 patients: a hybrid military-civilian model. BMJ Mil Health, 2020.

32.         Asai, Y., et al., Effect of evacuation of Japanese residents from Wuhan, China, on preventing transmission of novel coronavirus infection: A modelling study. J Infect Chemother, 2020.

33.         Abdel-Rahman, N. and G. Izbicki, To Fly Or Not To Fly? Aviation and Respiratory Diseases. Isr Med Assoc J, 2020. 22(12): p. 794-799.

34.         Alderson, S., et al., Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic: The experiences of South Australia's Rescue, Retrieval and Aviation Services. Emerg Med Australas, 2021.

35.         Kamata, K., et al., The Flight Evacuation Mission for COVID-19 from Wuhan, China to Tokyo, Japan from 28 January to 17 February 2020. Jpn J Infect Dis, 2020.

36.         Toprani, S.M., C. Scheibler, and Z.D. Nagel, Interplay Between Air Travel, Genome Integrity, and COVID-19 Risk vis-a-vis Flight Crew. Front Public Health, 2020. 8: p. 590412.

37.         Tobaiqy, M., et al., Assessment of Preventative Measures Practice among Umrah Pilgrims in Saudi Arabia, 1440H-2019. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020. 18(1).

38.         Görlich, Y. and D. Stadelmann, Mental Health of Flying Cabin Crews: Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Front Psychol, 2020. 11: p. 581496.

39.         Chetty, T., et al., A rapid review of the effectiveness of screening practices at airports, land borders and ports to reduce the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases such as COVID-19. S Afr Med J, 2020. 110(11): p. 1105-1109.

40.         Paleiron, N., et al., Impact of Tobacco Smoking on the risk of COVID-19.A large scale retrospective cohort study. Nicotine Tob Res, 2021.

41.         Eguíluz, V.M., et al., Risk of Secondary Infection Waves of COVID-19 in an Insular Region: The Case of the Balearic Islands, Spain. Front Med (Lausanne), 2020. 7: p. 563455.

42.         Song, S.W., et al., Symptoms and Characteristics Which Require Attention During COVID-19 Screening at a Port of Entry. J Korean Med Sci, 2021. 36(2): p. e14.

43.         Sagaro, G.G., et al., Telemedical assistance at sea in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(4): p. 229-236.

44.         Slišković, A., Seafarers' well-being in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study. Work, 2020. 67(4): p. 799-809.

45.         Dąbrowska, J., et al., Marine Waste-Sources, Fate, Risks, Challenges and Research Needs. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021. 18(2).

46.         Hebbar, A.A. and N. Mukesh, COVID-19 and seafarers' rights to shore leave, repatriation and medical assistance: a pilot study. Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(4): p. 217-228.

47.         Yazir, D., et al., Effects of COVID-19 on maritime industry: a review. Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(4): p. 253-264.

48.         Jimi, H. and G. Hashimoto, Challenges of COVID-19 outbreak on the cruise ship Diamond Princess docked at Yokohama, Japan: a real-world story. Glob Health Med, 2020. 2(2): p. 63-65.

49.         Zhang, Y. and S.R. Cheng, Evaluating the Need for Routine COVID-19 Testing of Emergency Department Staff: Quantitative Analysis. JMIR Public Health Surveill, 2020. 6(4): p. e20260.

50.         Zhou, S., et al., Global health governance for travel health: lessons learned from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in large cruise ships. Glob Health J, 2020. 4(4): p. 133-138.

51.         Sano, M., et al., Four Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Transferred from a Cruise Ship. Intern Med, 2020.

52.         Tsuboi, M., et al., Epidemiology and quarantine measures during COVID-19 outbreak on the cruise ship Diamond Princess docked at Yokohama, Japan in 2020: a descriptive analysis. Glob Health Med, 2020. 2(2): p. 102-106.

53.         Hoshiyama, T., et al., Clinical and Microbiological Features of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Mild COVID-19 in Seven Crewmembers of a Cruise Ship. Intern Med, 2020. 59(24): p. 3135-3140.

54.         Brewster, R.K., A. Sundermann, and C. Boles, Lessons learned for COVID-19 in the cruise ship industry. Toxicol Ind Health, 2020. 36(9): p. 728-735.

55.         Cremonesi, P., et al., Transformation of a Ferry Ship into a Ship Hospital for COVID-19 Patients. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020. 17(23).

56.         Kondo, H., et al., Japan DMAT operations in the Diamond Princess cruise ship: COVID-19 medical operation. Am J Disaster Med, 2020. 15(3): p. 207-218.

57.         Qin, J., et al., How many COVID-19 PCR positive individuals do we expect to see on the Diamond Princess cruise ship? medRxiv, 2020.

58.         Ooi, E.E. and J.G. Low, Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lancet Infect Dis, 2020. 20(9): p. 996-998.

59.         Montano, W. and E. Gushiken, Lima soundscape before confinement and during curfew. Airplane flights suppressions because of Peruvian lockdown. J Acoust Soc Am, 2020. 148(4): p. 1824.

60.         Albastaki, A., et al., First confirmed detection of SARS-COV-2 in untreated municipal and aircraft wastewater in Dubai, UAE: The use of wastewater based epidemiology as an early warning tool to monitor the prevalence of COVID-19. Sci Total Environ, 2020: p. 143350.

61.         Linden, E., Pandemics and environmental shocks: What aviation managers should learn from COVID-19 for long-term planning. J Air Transp Manag, 2021. 90: p. 101944.

62.         John Milne, R., C. Delcea, and L.A. Cotfas, Airplane Boarding Methods that Reduce Risk from COVID-19. Saf Sci, 2020: p. 105061.

63.         Malagón-Rojas, J., et al., SARS-CoV-2 and RT-PCR in asymptomatic patients: Results of a cohort of workers at El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá, 2020. Biomedica, 2020. 40(Supl. 2): p. 166-172.

64.         Kasper, M.R., et al., An Outbreak of Covid-19 on an Aircraft Carrier. N Engl J Med, 2020.

65.         Olapoju, O.M., Estimating transportation role in pandemic diffusion in Nigeria: A consideration of 1918-19 influenza and COVID-19 pandemics. J Glob Health, 2020. 10(2): p. 020501.

66.         Shaikh Abdul Karim, S., et al., Experience repatriation of citizens from epicentre using commercial flights during COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Emerg Med, 2020. 13(1): p. 50.

67.         Kim, J.G., et al., Air Evacuation of Passengers with Potential SARS-CoV-2 Infection Under the Guidelines for Appropriate Infection Control and Prevention. Osong Public Health Res Perspect, 2020. 11(5): p. 334-338.

68.         Deeb, O.E. and M. Jalloul, The dynamics of COVID-19 spread: evidence from Lebanon. Math Biosci Eng, 2020. 17(5): p. 5618-5632.

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Last update: 29/03/2021