Interim advice for preparedness and response to cases of COVID-19 at points of entry in the European Union (EU)/EEA Member States (MS)
The interim advice documents listed below were prepared after a request from the European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE). An ad-hoc working group was established with members from the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action consortium.
The scope of the advice provided in the documents listed below is to assist public health authorities in developing their short-term and long-term national and local preparedness plans. It further contains useful advice for the air, maritime and ground transport sectors.
POINTS OF ENTRY
and general advice at points of entry for public health measures and screening:
Interim advice for restarting cruise ship operations after lifting restrictive measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (Version 1 - 30 June 2020)
Interim advice for preparedness and response to cases of COVID-19 on board ferries after lifting restrictive measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Advice for ship operators for preparedness and response to the outbreak of COVID-19
It is recommended that the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS document “Advice for ship operators for preparedness and response to the outbreak of COVID-19” should be read and used also considering the following Commission Guidelines on protection of health, repatriation and travel arrangements for seafarers, passengers and other persons on board ships:
- Commission Guidelines on protection of health, repatriation and travel arrangements for seafarers, passengers and other persons on board ships. (08 April 2020). Available here
Advice for health authorities and ship operators who have decided to suspend sailings and for the long-term docking of ships at the ports of EU/EEA MS during COVID-19 pandemic
It is recommended that the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS document “Advice for health authorities and ship operators who have decided to suspend sailings and for the long-term docking of ships at the ports of EU/EEA MS during COVID-19 pandemic” should be read and used also considering the following Commission Guidelines on protection of health, repatriation and travel arrangements for seafarers, passengers and other persons on board ships:
- Commission Guidelines on protection of health, repatriation and travel arrangements for seafarers, passengers and other persons on board ships. (08 April 2020). Available here
WHO, WHERE, HOW: Overview of personal protective equipment (PPE) recommended for personnel, crew and passengers at points of entry and on board conveyances in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (VERSION 4 – 20/05/2020)
and general advice at points of entry for public health measures and screening:
- Buses and bus stations
and general advice at points of entry for public health measures and screening:
- Trains and rail stations
and general advice at points of entry for public health measures and screening:
Communications from the Commission about COVID-19 and transport
Training resources for COVID-19
Online training resources for COVID-19
- EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS JOINT ACTION
- Training of the trainers’ course “Preparedness and response to public health events at airports” (EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS 2019);
- Training of the trainers’ course “Preparedness and response to public health events at ports” (EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS 2019);
- Evidence-based best practices on entry/exit screening for infectious diseases in humans (DG SANTE 2019).
The training materials of the training course are available to the EU MS and access can be given by the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action (contact email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
All past webinars are listed here https://www.healthygateways.eu/Core-work-packages/Training
To access the available for play-back viewing webinars please apply on the link below by completing the webinar(s) you are interested in: https://www.healthygateways.eu/Contact-Us
Q & A
Τhe following questions were made by participants during the webinars conducted by the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS joint action in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Answers are based on guidelines from ECDC and WHO considering the current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 as of 5 March 2020. Answers were updated to include latest available guidance from ECDC and WHO as of 01 April 2020. For any further information or comment please contact email@example.com
Environmental persistence of SARS-CoV-2
The survival time of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment has been evaluated in recent publications reporting experimental studies that estimated the environmental stability of SARS-CoV-2 as up to three hours in the air post-aerosolisation, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel, albeit with significantly decreased titres . SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified on a variety of surfaces in cabins of both symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 infected passengers, up to 17 days after cabins were vacated on the Diamond Princess, but prior to conducting disinfection procedures . SARS-CoV-2 has been isolated from respiratory specimens, stool, urine and gastrointestinal mucosa [3-5]. SARS-CoV-2 has also been detected by PCR in rooms where COVID-19 patients were hospitalised, specifically from surfaces of the toilet bowl and sink, and the air exhaust outlets . Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 was also detected on different objects such as self-service printers used by patients to print the results of their own exams, desktop keyboards, doorknobs and on gloves . In an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, airborne transmission was not reported . There have been no reports of faecal−oral transmission of the COVID-19 virus to date .
Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non-healthcare facilities exposed to SARS-CoV-2 can be found at: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/interim-guidance-environmental-cleaning-non-healthcare-facilities-exposed-2019 .
Guidance on disinfection of environments in healthcare and non-healthcare settings potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 can be found at:
Technical recommendations for cleaning and disinfection on ships
The EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS has developed suggested procedures for cleaning and disinfection of ships during the pandemic or when a case of COVID-19 has been identified on board and are available here: https://www.healthygateways.eu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=_qOvPmjVu_E%3d&tabid=97&portalid=0
Technical recommendations for cleaning and disinfection on aircrafts
Following an event of an Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI) case on board, the airline should ensure that cleaning and disinfection procedures are followed consistently and correctly using the licenced products suitable for the aircraft at the highest acceptable concentrations [22, 23]. Special attention should be given to the zone of risk in the cabin area (e.g. seats, headrests, table-tops, handsets, and other materials coming in contact with the suspect case) where the case was seated, as well as all shared facilities and high-touched surfaces[11, 23, 24]. According to EASA guidance, after disembarkation of passenger and crew, the cabin doors should be closed and the air conditioning adjusted to the maximum volume to ensure all air exchange is completed. The service staff who will clean and disinfect the aircraft should be specially trained and apply the standard procedures for cleaning and disinfecting contaminated surfaces with infectious agents using the appropriate PPE.
WHO advises the following procedures for cleaning and disinfection in case a public health event has occurred on board :
- Ensure any disinfection is conducted using products licensed for use in the country occupied. The disinfectants must be tested by a certified laboratory according to the specifications of the aircraft manufacturers for material compatibility tests.
- Any contaminated items must be handled appropriately to mitigate the risk of transmission:
- Disposable items (hand towels, gloves, tissues) should be double bagged and sent to incineration or similar final disposal, according to the States Parties guidelines for infectious waste management.
- Reusable items that can be washed and treated/disinfected (gowns or linens) must be tagged and sent to a facility for washing and treatment, as recommended according to infection control procedures, depending on the type of contamination/infectious agent, if known.
Based on recommended disinfectants for aircrafts during the previous 2003 SARS outbreak and for MERS CoV, the recommended disinfectants are products containing ethanol in concentration of 70% or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, provided that these products have been tested by a certified laboratory according to the specifications of the aircraft manufacturers for material compatibility tests. For other products, the label of the manufacturer should mention that the disinfectant is effective against emerging viruses or against coronaviruses or that have sporicidal effect.
Detailed guidance for Aircraft preventive disinfection and for aircraft disinfection after an event can be found at the EASA Interim guidance on Aircraft Cleaning and Disinfection in relation to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics at:
15. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT. Infection prevention and control in the household management of people with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease(COVID-19). 2020, ECDC: Stockholm
Affected areas are defined by WHO in the website https://www.who.int/
In the latest travel advice published by WHO on 29 February 2020, the following are defined as affected areas:
“Affected areas” are considered those countries, provinces, territories or cities experiencing ongoing transmission of COVID-19, in contrast to areas reporting only imported cases. As of 27 February 2020, although China, particularly the Province of Hubei, has experienced sustained local transmission and has reported by far the largest number of confirmed cases since the beginning of the outbreak, lately the situation in China showed a significant decrease in cases. At the same time, an increasing number of countries, other than China, have reported cases, including through local transmission of COVID-19. As the epidemic evolves, it will be expected that many areas may detect imported cases and local transmission of COVID-19. WHO is publishing daily situation reports on the evolution of the outbreak (available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/). The outbreaks reported so far have occurred primarily within clusters of cases exposed through close-contacts, within families or special gathering events. COVID-19 is primarily transmitted through droplets from, and close contact with, infected individuals. Control measures that focus on prevention, particularly through regular hand washing and cough hygiene, and on active surveillance for the early detection and isolation of cases, the rapid identification and close monitoring of persons in contact with cases, and the rapid access to clinical care, particularly for severe cases, are effective to contain most outbreaks of COVID-19 .
Specimen collection and laboratory testing will be conducted at the health care facility where the suspect case has been transferred.
Please see answer to question 1 above.
Although currently there is no evidence of airborne transmission, a precautionary approach is recommended due to uncertainties surrounding the potential for aerosol-mediated transmission of the virus. Transmission through inhalation of aerosols during aerosol-generating procedures, may have occurred in some cases  .
Whenever possible, ships isolation rooms with mechanical ventilation should have negative pressure with minimum of 12 air changes per hour, while isolation rooms with natural ventilation, should provide a ventilation rate of at least 160 litres/second . All air handling units on board the ship should be adjusted to supply 100% outside air and no air recirculation should take place.
This will depend on the policy of each country and authority. Exchange of questions, opinion, and experiences could be done between points of entry or through the central level.
This will be judged by the physician and occupational health specialist for the specific persons and workplace.
This could be applied as a precautionary measure.
Scenario 1: A suspect case is detected on board while a ship is in port and as many travellers are on tours, others walking in the city and others are on board.
Since according to the scenario the symptomatic person is currently on board, the procedures for managing the symptomatic suspect traveller will start immediately on board. The procedures for identifying the close contacts will start immediately with the persons who are currently on board. The procedures for identifying the close contacts who are currently ashore will start once they are back to the ship. If it is feasible, their return back could be arranged earlier than scheduled. All other steps will be followed according to the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice for ship operators: https://www.healthygateways.eu/Novel-coronavirus.
Scenario 2: A suspect case is detected in one of the buses that are transferring passengers to the organized tours (there could be other buses doing the same stops and visiting the same places at the same time of the bus where a suspect case was detected).
The suspect case on board the bus should be transferred with an ambulance to the hospital immediately, if this is feasible. Further advice about management of a suspect case on the bus can be found in the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice for bus operators: https://www.healthygateways.eu/Novel-coronavirus
The identification and management of close contacts on board the ship will take place according to the procedures described in the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice for ship operators: https://www.healthygateways.eu/Novel-coronavirus.
Scenario 3: One of the drivers or guides becomes a suspect case and has performed tours for cruise lines in the past 14 days or is at that moment working with cruise line passengers.
The advice for bus operators should be followed in regard to the suspect driver or guide while on the bus. All persons who had been in close contact with the suspect driver or guide the previous 14 days should be informed about their exposure. Close contacts who are still on board should be managed according to the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS advice. All other persons who participated in previous cruises and have disembarked should be managed according to the ECDC advice for management of close contacts: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/public-health-management-persons-including-health-care-workers-having-had-contact
The items 3.4.6 to 3.4.9 of European Manual for Hygiene Standards and Communicable Disease Surveillance on Passenger Ships are relevant to receiving food provisions on board cruise ships. In addition, items 3.4.10 through 3.4.21 relate to storage of food. The European Manual for Hygiene Standards and Communicable Disease Surveillance on Passenger Ships is available here: http://www.shipsan.eu/Home/EuropeanManual.aspx
There is no special requirement for receiving food due to potential contamination with COVID-19. WHO advises that “It is highly unlikely that people can contract COVID-19 from food or food packaging”. When receiving food, the ship should follow the standard hygiene practises as defined on the HACCP Plan of the ship, as well as follow some general infection control practices. These include reporting of symptoms, frequent hand washing with warm water and soap (the use of gloves does not replace the need for frequent handwashing), physical distancing (by maintain more than 1 meter distance from other crew members, good respiratory hygiene (cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing; dispose of tissues and wash hands), frequent cleaning and disinfection of work surfaces and frequently touched surfaces such as door handles. Food workers should avoid touching their nose, mouth and eyes when wearing gloves and without washing their hands first. Moreover, while working with food, hands should be washed after touching nose, mouth and eyes.
Additional information regarding food safety and COVID-19 is available in the WHO Interim Guidance on COVID-19 and Food Safety: Guidance for Food Businesses: interim guidance available here: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/covid-19-and-food-safety-guidance-for-food-businesses
1. van Doremalen, N., et al., Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med, 2020.
2. Moriarty, L.F., et al., Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships - Worldwide, February-March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(12): p. 347-352.
3. Ling, Y., et al., Persistence and clearance of viral RNA in 2019 novel coronavirus disease rehabilitation patients. Chin Med J (Engl), 2020.
4. Ren, L.L., et al., Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin Med J (Engl), 2020.
5. Holshue, M.L., et al., First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med, 2020. 382(10): p. 929-936.
6. Ong, S.W.X., et al., Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. JAMA, 2020.
7. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT. Disinfection of environments in healthcare and nonhealthcare settings potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. 2020, ECDC: Stockholm
8. World Health Organization. Scientific brief - Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations. 29 March 2020 [cited 30/03/20; Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations.
9. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT - Guidelines for the use of non-pharmaceutical measures to delay and mitigate the impact of 2019-nCoV February 2020 2020: Stockholm.
10. Klaus, J., et al., Disinfection of aircraft : Appropriate disinfectants and standard operating procedures for highly infectious diseases. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, 2016. 59(12): p. 1544-1548.
11. European Aviation Safety Agency. Interim guidance on Aircraft Cleaning and Disinfectionin relation to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. Issue: 01 –Date: 20/03/2020. 2020 20/03/2020 [cited 27/03/2020; Available from: https://www.easa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/dfu/Interim-guidance-on-Aircraft-Cleaning-and-Disinfection.pdf.
12. World Health Organization, Interim Guidance - Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in suspected human cases. 2020.
13. World Health Organization. Summary of SARS and air travel. 2003 23 May 2003 21/1/2020]; Available from: https://www.who.int/csr/sars/travel/airtravel/en/.
14. World Health Organization, Handbook for the Management of Public Health Events in Air Transport. Updated with information on Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. 2015: World Health Organization.
15. World Health Organization. International travel and health Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in relation to COVID-19 outbreak 29 February 2020. 2020; Available from: https://www.who.int/ith/2019-nCoV_advice_for_international_traffic-rev/en/
16. EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS JOINT ACTION PREPAREDNESS AND ACTION AT POINTS OF ENTRY (PORTS, A., GROUND CROSSINGS),. INTERIM ADVICE FOR PREPAREDNESS AND RES PONSE TO CASES OF COVID-19 AT POINTS OF ENTRY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION(EU)/EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA MEMBER STATES (MS) - Public health measures at points of entry. 2020 20/02/2020; 3rd:[Available from: https://www.healthygateways.eu/Novel-coronavirus.
17. Rothe, C., et al., Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. The New England journal of medicine, 2020: p. 10.1056/NEJMc2001468.
18. World Health Organization. Interim guidance - Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 is suspected. 2020 13 March 2020; Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected.
Disclaimer: This document arises from the EU HEALTHY GATEWAYS Joint Action that was funded by the European Union’s Health Programme (2014-2020).The content of this document represents the views of the authors only and is their sole responsibility; it cannot be considered to reflect the views of the European Commission and/or the Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency (CHAFEA) or any other body of the European Union. The European Commission and the Agency do not accept any responsibility for use that may be made of the information it contains.
Guidance for COVID-19 from WHO, ECDC, US CDC, EASA, ICAO, IATA, ACI, IFALPA, IFATCA, UIC, IMO, ICS, IOM
World Health Organization
WHO - Promoting public health measures in response to COVID-19 on cargo ships and fishing vessels: interim guidance, 25 August 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/333978/WHO-2019-nCoV-Non-passenger_ships-2020.1-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Interim guidance - Water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 29 July 2020 https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/water-sanitation-hygiene-and-waste-management-for-the-covid-19-virus-interim-guidance
Interim guidance - Infection prevention and control during health care when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected or confirmed. 29 June 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/332879/WHO-2019-nCoV-IPC-2020.4-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Interim guidance - Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19. 5June 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/332293/WHO-2019-nCov-IPC_Masks-2020.4-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Controlling the spread of COVID-19 at ground crossings: interim guidance, 29 May 2020 – https://www.who.int/publications-detail/controlling-the-spread-of-covid-19-at-ground-crossings
Considerations for mass gatherings in the context of COVID-19: annex: considerations in adjusting public health and social measures in the context of COVID-19, 14 May 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/332079
Statement on the third meeting of the IHR (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/01-05-2020-statement-on-the-third-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)
Contact tracing in the context of COVID-19 – 10/05/2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/contact-tracing-in-the-context-of-covid-19
Surveillance strategies – 10/05/2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/surveillance-strategies-for-covid-19-human-infection
A Joint Statement on medical certificates of seafarers, ship sanitation certificates and medical care of seafarers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic 22 April 2020 https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/2020-04-22-ilo-who-imo-joint-statement-on-medical-certificates-of-seafarers-ship-sanitation-certificates-22-april-sg-(003).pdf?sfvrsn=6afdd464_2
Interim guidance. Considerations in adjusting public health and social measures in the context of COVID-19 16 April 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331773/WHO-2019-nCoV-Adjusting_PH_measures-2020.1-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Interim Guidance. COVID-19 and Food Safety: Guidance for Food Businesses: interim guidance. 7 April 2020. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/covid-19-and-food-safety-guidance-for-food-businesses
Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and considerations during severe shortages 06 April 2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/rational-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-and-considerations-during-severe-shortages
- Interim recommendations on obligatory hand hygiene against transmission of COVID-19. 1st April 2020 https://www.who.int/who-documents-detail/interim-recommendations-on-obligatory-hand-hygiene-against-transmission-of-covid-19
- Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Treatment Centre 28 March 2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/severe-acute-respiratory-infections-treatment-centre
- Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19:implications for IPC precaution recommendations. 27 March 2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations
- Interim guidance Operational considerations for COVID-19 surveillance using GISRS. 26 March 2020. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331589/WHO-2019-nCoV-Leveraging_GISRS-2020.1-eng.pdf
- Interim Guidance - Management of ill travellers at Points of Entry – international airports, seaports and ground crossings – in the context of COVID -19 outbreak 19 March 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331512/WHO-2019-nCoV-POEmgmt-2020.2-eng.pdf
- Interim guidance- Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). 20 March 2020 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331506/WHO-2019-nCoV-SurveillanceGuidance-2020.6-eng.pdf
- Interim Guidance - Considerations for quarantine of individuals in the context of containment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) 19 March 2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/considerations-for-quarantine-of-individuals-in-the-context-of-containment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)
- Interim guidance - Home care for patients with suspected novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection presenting with mild symptoms and management of contacts. 17 March 2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/home-care-for-patients-with-suspected-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-presenting-with-mild-symptoms-and-management-of-contacts
- Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: rights,roles and responsibilities of health workers, including key considerations for occupational safety and health 18 March 2020 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-outbreak-rights-roles-and-responsibilities-of-health-workers-including-key-considerations-for-occupational-safety-and-health
- Interim guidance - Operational considerations for managing COVID-19 cases or outbreak in aviation. 18 March 2020 - https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331488/WHO-2019-nCoV-Aviation-2020.1-eng.pdf
- Interim guidance - Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for COVID-19. 24 June 2020
- Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) Action Plan Guidance COVID-19 Preparedness and Response. 16 March 2020. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/risk-communication-and-community-engagement-(rcce)-action-plan-guidance
- Interim guidance - Considerations in the investigation of cases and clusters of COVID-19. 13 March 2020. https://www.who.int/internal-publications-detail/considerations-in-the-investigation-of-cases-and-clusters-of-covid-19
- Q&A on Mass Gatherings and COVID-19. 11 March 2020 https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-on-mass-gatherings-and-covid-19
- Interim guidance - Responding to community spread of COVID-19. 7 March 2020 https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/20200307-responding-to-covid-19-communitytransmission-final.pdf?sfvrsn=ec5fa30a_5
- The COVID-19 risk communication package for healthcare facilities. 2 March 2020 https://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/14482
- Q&A on infection prevention and control for health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV. 1 March 2020 | Q&A https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-on-infection-prevention-and-control-for-health-care-workers-caring-for-patients-with-suspected-or-confirmed-2019-ncov
- Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in relation to COVID-19 outbreak. 29 February 2020. https://www.who.int/ith/2019-nCoV_advice_for_international_traffic-rev/en/
- Interim Guidance - Operational considerations for managing COVID-19 cases/outbreak on board ships
- Interim Guidance - Key planning recommendations for Mass Gatherings in the context of the current COVID-19 outbreak
- Operational Readiness Checklist for COVID-19. 12 February 2020
- Key considerations for repatriation and quarantine of travellers in relation to the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. 11 February 2020
- Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 30 January 2020.
- Risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) readiness and response to the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 29 January 2020
- Updated WHO advice for international travel and trade in relation to the outbreak of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus in China. 27 January 2020
- Global Surveillance for human infection with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Interim guidance v3
- Surveillance case definitions for human infection with novel coronavirus (nCoV). 21 January 2020
- Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases (17 January 2020 ed.).
- Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected Interim guidance. 12 January 2020.
- National capacities review tool for a novel coronavirus (nCoV) 9 January 2020
- WHO Statement Regarding Cluster of Pneumonia Cases in Wuhan, China. 09 January 2020
- Emergencies preparedness, response - Pneumonia of unknown cause – China. 5 January 2020
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- Emergencies preparedness, response - Procedures for prevention and management of probable cases of SARS on international cargo vessels. 23 May 2003.
- Emergencies preparedness, response - Recommended procedures for prevention and management of probable cases of SARS on International Cruise Vessels. 4 June 2003.
- Summary of SARS and air travel. May 2003.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
TECHNICAL REPORT. Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings Fifth update – 6 October 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Infection-prevention-and-control-in-healthcare-settings-COVID-19_5th_update.pdf
Guidelines for the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 – 24 September 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-guidelines-non-pharmaceutical-interventions
COVID-19 clusters and outbreaks in occupational settings in the EU/EEA and the UK August 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-clusters-and-outbreaks-occupational-settings-eueea-and-uk
COVID-19 Rail Protocol: Recommendations for safe resumption of railway services in Europe https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-rail-protocol
COVID-19: EU guidance for cruise ship operations https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/COVID-19-cruise-ship-guidance
ECDC EASA: COVID-19 Aviation Health Safety Protocol: Guidance for the management of airline passengers in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-aviation-health-safety-protocol
Use of gloves in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in the context of the COVID 19 pandemic https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/gloves-healthcare-and-non-healthcare-settings-covid-19
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems in the context of COVID-19 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Ventilation-in-the-context-of-COVID-19.pdf
Considerations relating to passenger locator data, entry and exit screening and health declarations in the context of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/ECDC-one-page_EntryScreening_Passenger-Locator-and-Health-Declarations.pdf
Options for the decontamination and reuse of respirators in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/options-decontamination-and-reuse-respirators-covid-19-pandemic
ECDC/EASA Poster: COVID-19 - Plan your journey https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/poster-covid-19-plan-your-journey
COVID-19 Aviation Health Safety Protocol: Guidance for the management of airline passengers in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/EASA-ECDC_COVID-19_Operational-guidelines-for-management-of-passengers.pdf
Contact tracing for COVID-19: current evidence, options for scale-up and an assessment of resources needed https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/COVID-19-Contract-tracing-scale-up.pdf
Considerations for infection, prevention and control measures on public transport in the context of COVID-19 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-prevention-and-control-measures-public-transport
TECHNICAL REPORT - Contact tracing: Public health management of persons, including healthcare workers, having had contact with COVID-19 cases in the European Union - second update https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19-contact-tracing-public-health-management-second-update
TECHNICAL REPORT - Strategies for the surveillance of COVID-19. 9 April 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/COVID-19-surveillance-strategy-9-Apr-2020.pdf
Rapid risk assessment: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK – eighth update – 8 April 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-pandemic-eighth-update
TECHNICAL REPORT - Guidance for discharge and ending isolation in the context of widespread community transmission of COVID-19 – first update. 8 April 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/covid-19-guidance-discharge-and-ending-isolation-first%20update.pdf
Using face masks in the community - Reducing COVID-19 transmission from potentially asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic people through the use of face masks. 8 April 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/using-face-masks-community-reducing-covid-19-transmission
TECHNICAL REPORT Infection prevention and control in the household management of people with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/infection-prevention-control-household-management-covid-19
- TECHNICAL REPORT Infection prevention and control for COVID-19 in healthcare settings–third update. 31 March 2020. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/infection-prevention-and-control-and-preparedness-covid-19-healthcare-settings
- Cloth masks and mask sterilisation as options in case of shortage of surgical masks and respirators. 26 March 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Cloth-face-masks-in-case-shortage-surgical-masks-respirators2020-03-26.pdf
- Disinfection of environments in healthcare and non-healthcare settings potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. March 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Environmental-persistence-of-SARS_CoV_2-virus-Options-for-cleaning2020-03-26_0.pdf
- TECHNICAL REPORT - Considerations relating to social distancing measures in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. 23 March 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/considerations-relating-social-distancing-measures-response-covid-19-epidemic
- Information leaflet template on COVID-19 Brochure 10 Mar 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/information-leaflet-template-covid-19
- TECHNICAL REPORT - Resource estimation for contact tracing, quarantine and monitoring activities for COVID-19 cases in the EU/EEA. 2 March 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/resource-estimation-contact-tracing-quarantine-and-monitoring-activities-covid-19
- Rapid risk assessment: Outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): increased transmission globally – fifth update. 2 Mar 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-outbreak-novel-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-increased
- TECHNICAL REPORT - Guidance for wearing and removing personal protective equipment in healthcare settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. 28 Feb 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/guidance-wearing-and-removing-personal-protective-equipment-healthcare-settings
- TECHNICAL REPORT - Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non -healthcare facilities exposed to SARS -CoV-2 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/interim-guidance-environmental-cleaning-non-healthcare-facilities-exposed-2019
- Guidelines for the use of non-pharmaceutical measures to delay and mitigate the impact of 2019-nCoV February 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/guidelines-use-non-pharmaceutical-measures-delay-and-mitigate-impact-2019-ncov
- Personal protective equipment (PPE) needs in healthcare settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) February 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/personal-protective-equipment-ppe-needs-healthcare-settings-care-patients
- Current risk assessment on the novel coronavirus situation, 7 February 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/current-risk-assessment-novel-coronavirus-situation
- Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non-healthcare facilities exposed to 2019-nCoV. 7 February 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/interim-guidance-environmental-cleaning-non-healthcare-facilities-exposed-2019
- Technican Report - Public health management of persons having had contact with novel coronavirus cases in the European Union. 29 January 2020.https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/public-health-management-persons-having-had-contact-novel-coronavirus-cases
- Health emergency preparedness for imported cases of high-consequence infectious diseases - Operational checklist for country preparedness planning in the EU/EEA countries. Stockholm.https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Health-emergency-preparedness-imported-cases-of-high-consequence-infectious-diseases.pdf
- Laboratory testing of suspect cases of 2019 nCoV using RT-PCR. 16 Jan 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/laboratory-testing-suspect-cases-2019-ncov-using-rt-pcr
- RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT - Outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus, China: first local transmission in the EU/EEA − third update. 31 January 2020 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/novel-coronavirus-risk-assessment-china-31-january-2020_0.pdf
- Risk assessment guidelines for infectious diseases transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). January 2020 Stockholm: ECDC.https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/risk-assessment-guidelines-infectious-diseases-transmitted-aircraft-ragida-middle
- THREAT ASSESSMENT BRIEF - Pneumonia cases possibly associated with a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China.https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/pneumonia-cases-possibly-associated-novel-coronavirus-wuhan-china
- Algorithm for management of contacts of probable or confirmed 2019-nCoV cases 30/01/2020. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/algorithm-management-contacts-probable-or-confirmed-2019-ncov-cases
- LEAFLET - Advice for travellers: outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. 30/01/2020.https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/advice-travellers-outbreak-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov
- LEAFLET - Advice to healthcare workers: management of patients with 2019-nCoV infection. 30/01/2020. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/advice-healthcare-workers-management-patients-2019-ncov-infection
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Peer-reviewed scientific articles on COVID-19 and transportation [1-178]
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2. Schultz, M., et al., Future aircraft turnaround operations considering post-pandemic requirements. J Air Transp Manag, 2020. 89: p. 101886.
3. Amankwah-Amoah, J., Note: Mayday, Mayday, Mayday! Responding to environmental shocks: Insights on global airlines' responses to COVID-19. Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev, 2020. 143: p. 102098.
4. Pombal, R., I. Hosegood, and D. Powell, Risk of COVID-19 During Air Travel. JAMA, 2020.
5. Harries, A.D., L. Martinez, and J.M. Chakaya, SARS-CoV-2: how safe is it to fly and what can be done to enhance protection? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2020.
6. Linden, E., Pandemics and environmental shocks: What aviation managers should learn from COVID-19 for long-term planning. J Air Transp Manag, 2021. 90: p. 101944.
7. Casal, E.R., H.N. Catalano, and E.N. Vázquez, [Commercial airline routes and international distribution of COVID-19]. Medicina (B Aires), 2020. 80(5): p. 512-515.
8. Kim, J.E., et al., COVID-19 screening center models in South Korea. J Public Health Policy, 2020: p. 1-12.
9. Murphy, N., et al., A large national outbreak of COVID-19 linked to air travel, Ireland, summer 2020. Euro Surveill, 2020. 25(42).
10. Roy, S. and P. Ghosh, Factors affecting COVID-19 infected and death rates inform lockdown-related policymaking. PLoS One, 2020. 15(10): p. e0241165.
11. Depellegrin, D., et al., The effects of COVID-19 induced lockdown measures on maritime settings of a coastal region. Sci Total Environ, 2020. 740: p. 140123.
12. Hayward, A.C., et al., Public activities preceding the onset of acute respiratory infection syndromes in adults in England - implications for the use of social distancing to control pandemic respiratory infections. Wellcome Open Res, 2020. 5: p. 54.
13. Kang, S., et al., The Evolving Policy Debate on Border Closure in Korea. J Prev Med Public Health, 2020. 53(5): p. 302-306.
14. Sun, X., S. Wandelt, and A. Zhang, How did COVID-19 impact air transportation? A first peek through the lens of complex networks. J Air Transp Manag, 2020. 89: p. 101928.
15. Ribeiro, S.P., et al., Worldwide COVID-19 spreading explained: traveling numbers as a primary driver for the pandemic. An Acad Bras Cienc, 2020. 92(4): p. e20201139.
16. cacciapaglia Cacciapaglia, G. and F. Sannino, Interplay of social distancing and border restrictions for pandemics via the epidemic renormalisation group framework. Sci Rep, 2020. 10(1): p. 15828.
17. Barguil, Y., et al., Management of a global health crisis: first COVID-19 disease feedback from Overseas and French-speaking countries medical biologists. Ann Biol Clin (Paris), 2020. 78(5): p. 499-518.
18. Alfvén, T., et al., [The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development - an important opportunity to improve global health]. Lakartidningen, 2020. 117.
19. Shrestha, N., et al., The impact of COVID-19 on globalization. One Health, 2020: p. 100180.
20. Kang, N. and B. Kim, The Effects of Border Shutdowns on the Spread of COVID-19. J Prev Med Public Health, 2020. 53(5): p. 293-301.
21. Xie, C., et al., The evidence of indirect transmission of SARS-CoV-2 reported in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health, 2020. 20(1): p. 1202.
22. Hu, M., et al., The risk of COVID-19 transmission in train passengers: an epidemiological and modelling study. Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
23. Wang, L., et al., Quadruple therapy for asymptomatic COVID-19 infection patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2020. 18(7): p. 617-624.
24. Baveja, A., A. Kapoor, and B. Melamed, Stopping Covid-19: A pandemic-management service value chain approach. Ann Oper Res, 2020: p. 1-12.
25. Ye, L.X., et al., [Investigation of a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 in Ningbo]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 2020. 41(0): p. E065.
26. Yasri, S. and V. Wiwanitkit, Public Tourist Bus, Tourist Bus Driver, and COVID-19 Infection: A Note. Int J Prev Med, 2020. 11: p. 82.
27. Sigala, M., Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. J Bus Res, 2020. 117: p. 312-321.
28. Shen, Y., et al., Community Outbreak Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Among Bus Riders in Eastern China. JAMA Intern Med, 2020.
29. Palafox, N.A., et al., Viewpoint: Pacific Voyages - Ships - Pacific Communities: A Framework for COVID-19 Prevention and Control. Hawaii J Health Soc Welf, 2020. 79(6 Suppl 2): p. 120-123.
30. Taniguchi, H., et al., Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe pneumonia: COVID-19 case in Japan. Acute Med Surg, 2020. 7(1): p. e509.
31. Blackstone, N.W., S.R. Blackstone, and A.T. Berg, Variation and multilevel selection of SARS-CoV-2. Evolution, 2020.
32. Liu, F., X. Li, and G. Zhu, Using the contact network model and Metropolis-Hastings sampling to reconstruct the COVID-19 spread on the "Diamond Princess". Sci Bull (Beijing), 2020. 65(15): p. 1297-1305.
33. Roques, L., et al., Using Early Data to Estimate the Actual Infection Fatality Ratio from COVID-19 in France. Biology (Basel), 2020. 9(5).
34. Yamamoto, K., et al., Underperformance of Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction in Japan and Potential Implications From Diamond Princess Cruise Ship and Other Countries During the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Health Policy Manag, 2020.
35. Seemann, T., et al., Tracking the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia using genomics. Nat Commun, 2020. 11(1): p. 4376.
36. Awoniyi, O., The Petri-Dish Effect. Disaster Med Public Health Prep, 2020: p. 1-2.
37. Draper, A.D., et al., The first 2 months of COVID-19 contact tracing in the Northern Territory of Australia, March-April 2020. Commun Dis Intell (2018), 2020. 44.
38. De Natale, G., et al., The COVID-19 Infection in Italy: A Statistical Study of an Abnormally Severe Disease. J Clin Med, 2020. 9(5).
39. Emery, J.C., et al., The contribution of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections to transmission on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. Elife, 2020. 9.
40. Chatterjee, P., et al., The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: A review of the current evidence. Indian J Med Res, 2020. 151(2 & 3): p. 147-159.
41. Hosoda, T., et al., SARS-CoV-2 enterocolitis with persisting to excrete the virus for approximately two weeks after recovering from diarrhea: A case report. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2020. 41(6): p. 753-754.
42. Hung, I.F., et al., SARS-CoV-2 shedding and seroconversion among passengers quarantined after disembarking a cruise ship: a case series. Lancet Infect Dis, 2020. 20(9): p. 1051-1060.
43. Sekizuka, T., et al., SARS-CoV-2 Genome Analysis of Japanese Travelers in Nile River Cruise. Front Microbiol, 2020. 11: p. 1316.
44. Yang, W., et al., [Retrospective analysis of the on-site treatment of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic on the Costa Crociere cruise]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue, 2020. 32(6): p. 750-753.
45. Dai, Q., et al., Reflection on SARS-CoV-2 infection of container ship seafarers. Travel Med Infect Dis, 2020. 36: p. 101787.
46. Lin, Y.C., et al., Quarantine measures for coronavirus disease 2019 on a cruise ship, Taiwan, February 2020. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 99: p. 298-300.
47. Xue, J., et al., Public discourse and sentiment during the COVID 19 pandemic: Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation for topic modeling on Twitter. PLoS One, 2020. 15(9): p. e0239441.
48. Dubbke-Laule, A., et al., [Quadruple negative SARS-CoV-2-PCR: still COVID-19 pneumonia!]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 2020. 145(20): p. 1498-1502.
49. Leung, W.S., et al., Presumed COVID-19 index case on diamond princess cruise ship and evacuees to Hong Kong. J Travel Med, 2020. 27(5).
50. Choquet, A. and A. Sam-Lefebvre, Ports closed to cruise ships in the context of COVID-19: What choices are there for coastal states? Ann Tour Res, 2020: p. 103066.
51. Visser, J.T., Patterns of illness and injury on Antarctic research cruises, 2004-2019: a descriptive analysis. J Travel Med, 2020. 27(6).
52. Jenness, S.M., et al., Modeling Dynamic Network Strategies for SARS-CoV-2 Control on a Cruise Ship. medRxiv, 2020.
53. Batista, B., et al., Minimizing disease spread on a quarantined cruise ship: A model of COVID-19 with asymptomatic infections. Math Biosci, 2020. 329: p. 108442.
54. Anan, H., et al., Medical Transport for 769 COVID-19 Patients on a Cruise Ship by Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team. Disaster Med Public Health Prep, 2020: p. 1-4.
55. Xu, L., et al., Lessons and suggestions to travelers and cruise ships in the fight against COVID-19. QJM, 2020.
56. Muto, K., et al., Japanese citizens' behavioral changes and preparedness against COVID-19: An online survey during the early phase of the pandemic. PLoS One, 2020. 15(6): p. e0234292.
57. Yamagishi, T. and Y. Doi, Insights on COVID-19 epidemiology from a historic cruise ship quarantine. Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
58. Sekizuka, T., et al., Haplotype networks of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the Diamond Princess cruise ship outbreak. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020. 117(33): p. 20198-20201.
59. Deng, X., et al., Genomic surveillance reveals multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Northern California. Science, 2020. 369(6503): p. 582-587.
60. Hoffmann Pham, K.E. and M. Luengo-Oroz, From plague to coronavirus: vessel trajectory data from ship automatic identification systems for epidemic modeling. J Travel Med, 2020. 27(6).
61. Radic, A., et al., Fear and Trembling of Cruise Ship Employees: Psychological Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020. 17(18).
62. Jorden, M.A., et al., Evidence for Limited Early Spread of COVID-19 Within the United States, January-February 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(22): p. 680-684.
63. Sriwijitalai, W. and V. Wiwanitkit, COVID-19 Outbreak in International Airport - Where the Incidence Case Occurs? Int J Prev Med, 2020. 11: p. 51.
64. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Outbreak on Cruise Ship Quarantined at Yokohama, Japan, February 2020. Emerg Infect Dis, 2020. 26(11): p. 2591-2597.
65. Lai, C.K.C., et al., Epidemiological characteristics of the first 100 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, a city with a stringent containment policy. Int J Epidemiol, 2020.
66. Yamagishi, T., et al., Environmental Sampling for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 During a COVID-19 Outbreak on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship. J Infect Dis, 2020. 222(7): p. 1098-1102.
67. Sando, E., et al., COVID-19 outbreak on the Costa Atlantica cruise ship: use of a remote health monitoring system. J Travel Med, 2020.
68. Mouchtouri, V.A., et al., Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, air-conditioner and ventilation systems. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2020. 230: p. 113599.
69. Miyamae, Y., et al., Duration of viral shedding in asymptomatic or mild cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a cruise ship: A single-hospital experience in Tokyo, Japan. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 97: p. 293-295.
70. Yamagishi, T., et al., Descriptive study of COVID-19 outbreak among passengers and crew on Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama Port, Japan, 20 January to 9 February 2020. Euro Surveill, 2020. 25(23).
71. Sloane, P.D., Cruise Ships, Nursing Homes, and Prisons as COVID-19 Epicenters: A "Wicked Problem" With Breakthrough Solutions? J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2020. 21(7): p. 958-961.
72. Nguyen, C., et al., Critical COVID-19 patient evacuation on an amphibious assault ship: feasibility and safety. A case series. BMJ Mil Health, 2020.
73. Ing, A.J., C. Cocks, and J.P. Green, COVID-19: in the footsteps of Ernest Shackleton. Thorax, 2020. 75(8): p. 693-694.
74. COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 19 (Fortnightly reporting period ending 21 June 2020). Commun Dis Intell (2018), 2020. 44.
75. COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 18 (Fortnightly reporting period ending 7 June 2020). Commun Dis Intell (2018), 2020. 44.
76. COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 17 (Fortnightly reporting period ending 24 May 2020). Commun Dis Intell (2018), 2020. 44.
77. COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 16 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 17 May 2020). Commun Dis Intell (2018), 2020. 44.
78. Takeuchi, I., COVID-19 first stage in Japan - how we treat 'Diamond Princess Cruise Ship' with 3700 passengers? Acute Med Surg, 2020. 7(1): p. e506.
79. Salducci, M. and G. La Torre, COVID-19 emergency in the cruise's ship: a case report of conjunctivitis. Clin Ter, 2020. 171(3): p. e189-e191.
80. Tokuda, Y., et al., COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship in February 2020. J Gen Fam Med, 2020. 21(4): p. 95-97.
81. Pougnet, R., et al., COVID-19 on cruise ships: preventive quarantine or abandonment of patients? Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(2): p. 147-148.
82. Stannard, S., COVID-19 in the maritime setting: the challenges, regulations and the international response. Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(2): p. 85-90.
83. Plucinski, M.M., et al., COVID-19 in Americans aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship. Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
84. Sossai, P., et al., Coronavirus variant COVID-19 pandemic: a report to seafarers. Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(3): p. 191-194.
85. Hall, S., Coronavirus shutdown forces research ship to break out of Arctic ice. Nature, 2020.
86. Sikorska, K., Coronavirus Disease 2019 as a challenge for maritime medicine. Int Marit Health, 2020. 71(1): p. 4.
87. Matsumura, K., et al., Comparison of the Clinical Course of COVID-19 Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in 2 Passengers from the Cruise Ship Diamond Princess in February 2020. Am J Case Rep, 2020. 21: p. e926835.
88. Takahashi, N., et al., Clinical course of a critically ill patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). J Artif Organs, 2020: p. 1-4.
89. Kato, H., et al., Clinical course of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in individuals present during the outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. J Infect Chemother, 2020. 26(8): p. 865-869.
90. Yoshimura, Y., et al., Clinical characteristics of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on a cruise ship. J Infect Chemother, 2020. 26(11): p. 1177-1180.
91. Tabata, S., et al., Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in 104 people with SARS-CoV-2 infection on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: a retrospective analysis. Lancet Infect Dis, 2020. 20(9): p. 1043-1050.
92. Wilson, N., et al., Case-Fatality Risk Estimates for COVID-19 Calculated by Using a Lag Time for Fatality. Emerg Infect Dis, 2020. 26(6): p. 1339-1441.
93. Daniells, J.K., H.L. MacCallum, and D.N. Durrheim, Asymptomatic COVID-19 or are we missing something? Commun Dis Intell (2018), 2020. 44.
94. Farooqi, F.I., et al., Airway Hygiene in COVID-19 Pneumonia: Treatment Responses of 3 Critically Ill Cruise Ship Employees. Am J Case Rep, 2020. 21: p. e926596.
95. Liu, X. and Y.C. Chang, An emergency responding mechanism for cruise epidemic prevention-taking COVID-19 as an example. Mar Policy, 2020. 119: p. 104093.
96. Correia, G., et al., Airborne route and bad use of ventilation systems as non-negligible factors in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Med Hypotheses, 2020. 141: p. 109781.
97. Geng, J., et al., A Silent Infection Pandemic of COVID-19: Epidemiological Investigation and Hypothetical Models. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 2020. 2020: p. 5120253.
98. Deng, X., et al., A Genomic Survey of SARS-CoV-2 Reveals Multiple Introductions into Northern California without a Predominant Lineage. medRxiv, 2020.
99. Gupta, A., et al., A comparative analysis of control measures on-board ship against COVID-19 and similar novel viral respiratory disease outbreak: Quarantine ship or disembark suspects? Med J Armed Forces India, 2020.
100. Yang, N., et al., In-flight transmission cluster of COVID-19: a retrospective case series. Infect Dis (Lond), 2020. 52(12): p. 891-901.
101. Wei, J.T., et al., Impacts of transportation and meteorological factors on the transmission of COVID-19. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2020. 230: p. 113610.
102. Speake, H., et al., Flight-Associated Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Corroborated by Whole-Genome Sequencing. Emerg Infect Dis, 2020. 26(12).
103. Shi, S., et al., Travel restrictions and SARS-CoV-2 transmission: an effective distance approach to estimate impact. Bull World Health Organ, 2020. 98(8): p. 518-529.
104. Serrano, F. and A. Kazda, The future of airport post COVID-19. J Air Transp Manag, 2020. 89: p. 101900.
105. Pavli, A., et al., In-flight transmission of COVID-19 on flights to Greece: An epidemiological analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis, 2020. 38: p. 101882.
106. Oztig, L.I. and O.E. Askin, Human mobility and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a negative binomial regression analysis. Public Health, 2020. 185: p. 364-367.
107. Myers, J.F., et al., Identification and Monitoring of International Travelers During the Initial Phase of an Outbreak of COVID-19 - California, February 3-March 17, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(19): p. 599-602.
108. Luo, G., M.L. McHenry, and J.J. Letterio, Estimating the prevalence and risk of COVID-19 among international travelers and evacuees of Wuhan through modeling and case reports. PLoS One, 2020. 15(6): p. e0234955.
109. Linka, K., et al., Is it safe to lift COVID-19 travel bans? The Newfoundland story. Comput Mech, 2020: p. 1-12.
110. Bae, S.H., et al., Asymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on Evacuation Flight. Emerg Infect Dis, 2020. 26(11): p. 2705-2708.
111. Gössling, S., Risks, resilience, and pathways to sustainable aviation: A COVID-19 perspective. J Air Transp Manag, 2020. 89: p. 101933.
112. De Salazar, P.M., et al., Identifying Locations with Possible Undetected Imported Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Cases by Using Importation Predictions. Emerg Infect Dis, 2020. 26(7): p. 1465-1469.
113. Ahmed, W., et al., Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in commercial passenger aircraft and cruise ship wastewater: a surveillance tool for assessing the presence of COVID-19 infected travellers. J Travel Med, 2020. 27(5).
114. Nikolaou, P. and L. Dimitriou, Identification of critical airports for controlling global infectious disease outbreaks: Stress-tests focusing in Europe. J Air Transp Manag, 2020. 85: p. 101819.
115. Daon, Y., R.N. Thompson, and U. Obolski, Estimating COVID-19 outbreak risk through air travel. J Travel Med, 2020.
116. Cadnum, J.L., et al., Evaluation of Ultraviolet-C Light for Rapid Decontamination of Airport Security Bins in the Era of SARS-CoV-2. Pathog Immun, 2020. 5(1): p. 133-142.
117. Zhang, Y., A. Zhang, and J. Wang, Exploring the roles of high-speed train, air and coach services in the spread of COVID-19 in China. Transp Policy (Oxf), 2020. 94: p. 34-42.
118. Christidis, P. and A. Christodoulou, The Predictive Capacity of Air Travel Patterns during the Global Spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Risk, Uncertainty and Randomness. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020. 17(10): p. 3356.
119. Gunthe, S.S. and S.S. Patra, Impact of international travel dynamics on domestic spread of 2019-nCoV in India: origin-based risk assessment in importation of infected travelers. Global Health, 2020. 16(1): p. 45.
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Last update: 27/10/2020